As part of the ongoing BRAIN Initiative to build an “atlas” of the brain, scientists have recently published a series of detailed maps on more than 3000 types of cells in the human brain. As Dr. Ed Lein, one of the researchers involved in the project, says, “We really need this kind of information if we’re going to understand what makes us unique as humans, or what makes us different as individuals, or how the brain develops.” As you might imagine, a full atlas of the structure and function of brain cells will also be useful in pinpointing what goes wrong in the brain for a range of conditions, from Alzheimer’s to anxiety.

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